DANISH EMPIRE (Compiled by Erica Chan)




Dantzig, Albert van. Forts and Castles of Ghana. Accra, 1980.

DeCorse, Christopher R. “The Danes on the Gold Coast: Culture Change and the European Presence.” The African Archaeological Review 11 (1993): 149-173.

This article looks at a variety of Danish forts on the Gold Coast and investigates the African-European interactions and cultural exchanges in these areas of contact.

Hernæs, Per. “A Symbol of Power: Christiansborg Castle in Ghanaian History.” Transactions of the Historical Society of Ghana, no. 9 (2005): 141-156.

Justesen, Ole. “Danish Settlements on the Gold Coast in the Nineteenth Century: An Outline.” Scandinavian Journal of History 4 (1979): 3-33.

An historiographical approach to the scholarships around the Danish Empire in Colonial Gold Coast in Africa. 

Lawrence, A.W. Trade Castles and Forts of West Africa. London, 1963.

Weiss, Holger. “The Danish Gold Coast as a Multinational and Entangled Space, c.1700-1850.” In Scandinavian Colonialism and the Rise of Modernity: Small Time Agents in a Global Arena. Edited by M. Naum and J.M. Nordin, 243- 260. New York: Springer Science + Business Media, 2013.

This chapter explores the spaces of cultural contact and exchange in Danish colonial Ghana, especially in Danish Accra and Osu by focusing on the exchanges of ideas and cultural artefacts between Europeans and African cultures.

Wellington, H. Hii-Adziri. “In the Shadow of Christiansborg: Architectural History and Genealogy of the Okantey Trading House at Danish Osu.” Institute of African Studies Research Review, no. 7 (2006): 149-161.

Christiansborg Castle had a commanding presence in colonial Osu and its heavy European baroque architecture influenced the architectural history of buildings in the area. This paper looks at a surrounding architecture that derived from the prominence of Christiansborg.




Fihl, Esther. The Governor’s Residence in Tranquebar. Copenhagen, 2017.

Fihl, Esther and Stine Simonsen Puri. “The Study of Cultural Encounters in Tharangampadi/ Tranquebar.” Review of Development and Change 14, no. 1&2 (2009): 7-18.

Jørgensen, Helle. “Transnational Constructions of Heritage in a Former Danish Trading Colony in South India.” History and Anthropology 22, no.2 (2011): 169-186.

Tranquebar has been declared a heritage town by the local government due to its Indo-Danish cityscape and built environment. The author argues that Tranquebar’s remoteness is vital to its reputation as a heritage town.

------. “Whose History? Transnational Cultural Heritage in Tranquebar.” Review of Development and Change 14, no. 1&2 (2009): 227-250.

This article discusses the factors in preserving the heritage town of Tranquebar and argues that the current development of the city is a cross cultural process and must consider the existing built environment for more than its historical significance.

Krieger, Martin. “Material Culture, Knowledge, and European Society in Colonial India around 1800: Danish Tranquebar.” In Artistic and Cultural Exchanges between Europe and Asia, 1400-1900. Edited by Michael North, 52-72. London: Routledge, 2016.



Chapman, William. “Irreconcilable Differences: Urban Residences in Danish West Indies, 1700-1900.” Winterthur Portfolio 30, no.2/3 (1995): 129-172.

------. “Slave Villages in the Danish West Indies: Changes of the Late Eighteenth and Early Nineteenth Centuries.” Perspectives in Vernacular Architecture, no.4 (1991): 108-120.

This article discusses the changes of slave houses in the Danish West Indies and how its evolution did not come only from Danish settlers but also from colonial architecture of other European empires, such as the British

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