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DUTCH EMPIRE (compiled by Erica Chan)




Corrigan, Karina H. et al. Asia in Amsterdam: The Culture of Luxury in the Golden Age. Amsterdam and New Haven, 2016.

Embury, Aymar. The Dutch Colonial House: Its Origin, Design, Modern Plan and Construction. New York: McBride, Nast & Company, 1913.

Focusing on the Dutch colonial houses in North America, this primary source provides a wide range of information regarding the Dutch colonial style in architecture, interior design, and furniture.

Rosenberg, Jakob. Dutch Art and Architecture: 1600 to 1800. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1972.

Wiarda, Howard J. The Dutch Diaspora: Growing Up Dutch in New Worlds and the Old: The Netherlands and its settlements in Africa, Asia, and the Americas. Lanham, Lexington Books, 2007.

This book explores the historic, cultural, and political changes for Dutch settlers throughout the Dutch Empire. It looks at the rise and fall of the empire from different regions, as well as the influences and interactions of cultures.

Zandvliet, Kees. The Dutch Encounter with Asia 1600 – 1950. Amsterdam, 2002.



Dantzig, Albert van. Forts and Castles of Ghana. Accra, 1980.

Lawrence, A.W. Trade Castles and Forts of West Africa. London, 1963.

Schellekens, Jona. “A Note on the Dutch Origins of South African Colonial Architecture.” Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians 56, no.2 (1997): 204-206.



Buono, Amy J. “Historicity, Achronicity, and the Materiality of Cultures in Colonial Brazil.” Getty Research Journal, no. 7 (2015): 19-34.



De Silva, Nimal and D.P. Chandrasekara. Heritage Buildings of Sri Lanka. Colombo, 2009.

Lewcock, Ronald. The Architecture of an Island: The Living Heritage of Sri Lanka. Colombo, 1998.

McGilvray, Dennis B. “Dutch Burghers and Portuguese Mechanics: Eurasian Ethnicity in Sri Lanka.” Comparative Studies in Society and History 24, no.2 (1982): 235-263.

A historical background of the cultural and ethnical evolution in Sri Lanka post-European contact and settlement.

Thompson, Mark and Karl Steinberg, Galle Fort – World Heritage Site. Colombo, 2010.




Ardiyanto, Antonius, Achmad Djunaedi, Suryabrata Ikaputra, and Adi Djadmika. “The Concept of Modern Dutch Colonial Architecture to the Development of Javanese Architecture.” The Journal of Architecture and Built Environment 41, no.1 (2014): 37-42.

This article looks at the works of architects Thomas Karsten and Henri Maclaine Pont as the pioneers of Modern Dutch architecture in colonial Java. This article explores the use of traditional Javanese architecture (as a solution to the concerns around the tropical climate) in conjunction with the development of modern architecture in the East Indies (as a symbol is modernity).

De Wit, Augusta. Java, Facts and Fancies. London: Chapman & Hall 1905.

As Dutch novelist who spent most of her life in the Dutch East Indies, de Wit provides a unique perspective to life in the tropical colonies. A collection of her articles written in the late 1890s, this primary source explores the trials and challenges of the colonial landscape, the social life, and the cultural differences experienced by the locals, the Chinese, and the European colonialists. 

Heuken, Adolf. Historical Sights of Jakarta. Singapore, 1989.

Jessup, Helen. "Four Dutch Buildings in Indonesia." Orientations Magazine (1982): 22-34.

------. "Dutch Architectural Idea on Indonesia Traditions." Muqarnas 3 (1985): 138-61.

Kehoe, Marsely L. “Imaginary Gables: The Visual Culture of Dutch Architecture in the Indies.” Journal of Early Modern History 20, no.5 (2016): 462-493.

In Dutch colonial Indies, the built environment reflected the hybridity of culture and styles that reflected the familiarity of the Netherlands while using local materials and forms. However, in print, colonial cities were often represented as direct replicas of Amsterdam. This paper considers the difference in visual and print culture as a means of cultivating a specific image for European settlers.

Lukito, Yulia Nurliani. “Colonial Exhibitions, Hybrid Architecture, and the Interpretation of modernity in the Dutch East Indies.” Journal of Cultural Geography 36, no.3 (2019): 291-316.

This article discusses hybrid architecture in the Dutch East Indies and argues that the adaptation of local motifs and materials helped modernize the Dutch colonies and created a space where local people and Dutch settlers could develop their own version of colonial modernity.

Norbruis, Obbe. Alweer een Sieraad voor de Stad: het Werk van Ed. Cuypers en Hulswit-Fermont in Nederlands-Indië 1897 – 1927. Volendam, 2018.

Norbruis, Obbe. Architectuur met Vlag en Wimpel: het Werk van Fermont-Cuypers in Nederlands-Indië en Indonesië 1927 – 1957. Volendam, 2018.

Passchier, Cor. Bouwen in Indonesië 1600 – 1900. Volendam, 2016.

Schoppert, Peter, and Soedarmadji Damais. Java Style. Singapore: Didier Millet, 2012.

Sumalyo, Yulianto. “Dutch Colonial Architecture and City Development of Makassar.” Dimensi: Journal of Architecture and Built Environment 30, no.1 (2002): 48-53.

Van der Pol, Bauke. The Dutch East India Company in India. Bath, 2014.



Chickrie, Raymond. “The Afghan Muslims of Guyana and Suriname.” Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs 22, no.2 (2002): 381-399.

Suriname and Guyana are both ethnically and culturally diverse counties in the world, especially due to their colonial histories. This article discusses the cultural diversity and how it influences the built environment.

Klooster, Olga van der, and Michel Bakker. Architectuur en bouwcultuur in Suriname. Amsterdam, 2009.

Van Eyck, Aldo. “Tropical Lafour.” Architectural Review 178, no.1052 (1984): 62-67.

This article discusses the works of Dutch architect Lucien Lafour who developed an architectural style in in Galibi, Surinam, which he brought with him upon his return to the Netherlands. As a result, characteristics of Surinam architectural style continued in the Netherlands.

Wickham, Julyan. “Colonial Outpost.” Architectural Review 201 (1997): 60-64.

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