FRENCH EMPIRE (Compiled by Erica Chan)




Aldrich, Robert. “Imperial Mise en Valeur and Mise en Scéne: Recent Works on French Colonialism.” The Historical Journal 45, no.4 (2002): 917-936.

A historiographical review of the French and English language scholarship written since 1995 on French colonial ideology, policies, and cultural development in Indochina. This review suggests that contemporary scholars have placed France’s colonial history in a more prominent position in French national history than previously.

Crain, Edward E. Historic Architecture in the Caribbean. Gainesville: Library Press at UF, 2017.

Bailey, Gauvin A. Architecture and Urbanism in the French Atlantic Empire: State, Church, and Society, 1604-1830. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2018.

A historical investigation of the French empire in the Western Hemisphere. Chapters in this book cover an array of topics from urban development in the French colonies, secular architecture, vernacular architecture, to structures built by free people of colour as well as slaves that all contributed to the French colonial empire.

Edwards, Jay D. “The Origins of Creole Architecture.” Winterthur Portfolio 29, no.2/3 (1994): 155-189.

This article compares and contrasts the development of Creole architecture in European and African cultures. It argues that despite the evolution of styles, the migration of different ethnic associations, and the influences of cultures, Creole architecture best demonstrates the interaction between the colonizer and the colonized and the need to adapt to new environments and cultures. 

Guilloux, Tristan. “The Maison ‘Tropique’: A Modernist Icon or the Ultimate Colonial Bungalow?” Fabrications: The Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians Australia & New Zealand 18, no.2 (2008): 6-25.

While much of the scholarship focuses on how European contact influenced the built environment of their colonies, this article switches the focus and investigates how colonial architecture was adopted into French modernist building types post World War II.

Morton, Patricia A. “National and Colonial: The Musée des Colonies at the Colonial Exposition, Paris 1931.” The Art Bulletin 80, no.2 (1998): 357-377.

The Musée des Colonies was designed by Albert Laprade as part of the 1931 Colonial Exposition in Paris to represent both the French colonial empire and to France itself. This paper investigates how Laprade’s structure represented the dichotomy of the aesthetic hierarchy of decorative arts and architecture of France and in its colonies.

Norindr, Panivong. “Representing Indochina: the French colonial fantasmatic and the Exposition Coloniale de Paris.” French Cultural Studies 6, no.16 (1995): 35-60.

Oszuscik, Philippe. “Comparisons Between Rural and Urban French Creole Housing.” Material Culture 26, no.3 (1994): 1-36.

This paper explores the differences between rural and urban French Creole architecture in the South-central United states and argues that the definition of Creole architecture and the French Creole cottage style needs to be expanded to reflect the cultural influences and geographic boundaries.

Vidal, Laurent, and Émilie D’Orgeix, eds. Les villes françaises du Nouveau Monde. Paris, 1999.

Wright, Gwendolyn. The Politics of Design in French Colonial Urbanism. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1991.

Wright, Gwendolyn. “Tradition in the Service of Modernity: Architecture and Urbanism in French Colonial Policy, 1900-1930.” The Journal of Modern History 59, no.2 (1987): 291-316.

French colonies were used as a place for putting theories into practice, and a setting to address the concerns of architects and intellectuals. Wright suggests that these ‘colonial laboratories’ are still relevant in studying the evolution of architectural and urban styles in both the colonial and postcolonial world.

Wylie, Diana. “ ‘Part of Who We Are’ Using Old Buildings to Foster Citizenship in North Africa (Oran, Algeria, and Casablanca, Morocco).” Buildings & Landscapes: Journal of the Vernacular Architecture Forum 25, no.1 (2018): 44-63.

In northwest Africa, preservationists have launched movements to preserve and appreciate French colonial buildings. This essay focuses on three historical preservation associations in northwest Africa based in Algeria and Morocco and their attempts to protect the historical built environment.



Aymonier, E. Khmer Heritage in the Old Siamese Provinces of Cambodia: with special emphasis on temples, inscriptions, and etymology. Bangkok: White Lotus Press, 1999.

Das, Ram Ranjan. Art Traditions of Cambodia. Calcutta: Firma K.L. Mukhopadhyay, 1974.

Filippi, Jean-Michel. Strolling around Phnom Penh. Phnom Penh, n.d.

Jessup, Helen. Art & Architecture of Cambodia. London: Thames & Hudson, 2004.

Although this book focuses largely on the pre-colonial period, it provides an in-depth perspective on the traditional architecture and art of Cambodia as influenced by religion, culture, and climate.

Koditek, Walter. Battambang Heritage. Hong Kong, 2018.

Manomohan, Ghosh. A History of Cambodia from the earliest time to the end of the French Protectorate. Saigon: J.K. Gupta, 1960.

The book is divided into five historical periods in which the author discusses the cultural and political history of Cambodia during each period. The Modern Period discusses the French Protectorate and European influences upon art, culture, and politics.

Tainturier, François. Wooden Architecture of Cambodia: A Disappearing Heritage. Phnom Penh: Centre for Khmer Studies, Publishing Dept, 2006.

The traditional building technique found in Cambodian culture is the use of wood, which holds important culturally symbolic and social connotations. This book examines the traditional techniques and methods of building in wood and how this practice is an important part of Cambodia’s cultural heritage.




Bain, Allison, Réginald Auger, and Yannick Le Roux. “Archaeological Research at Habitation Loyola,

French Guiana.” In Kenneth G. Kelly and Meredith D. Hardy, eds., French Colonial Archaeology in the Southeast and Caribbean, 206–24. Gainesville, 2011.

Le Roux, Yannick, et al. Les jésuites et l’esclavage: Loyola, l’habitation des jésuites de Rémire en Guyane française. Quebec City, 2009.




Berthelot, Jack, and Martine Gaumé. Kaz Antiyé jan moun ka rété: L’habitat populaire aux Antilles. Goyave, 2002.

Desmoulins, Marie-Emmanuelle. La Côte-sous-le-vent, Guadeloupe. Paris, 2002.

Desmoulins, Marie-Emmanuelle et al. Basse-Terre, patrimoine d’une ville antillaise. Pointe-à-Pitre, 2006.

Flohic, Jean-Luc ed. Le patrimoine des communes de la Guadeloupe. Paris, 1998.

Kissoun, Bruno. “Les prémices de l’architecture métallique en Guadeloupe: la construction de l’église Saint-Pierre et Saint-Paul de Pointe-à-Pitre au XIXe siècle. In Situ 6 (2005): 2–20.

Kissoun, Bruno.  Pointe-à-Pitre: urbanisme et architecture religieuse, publique et militaire XVIIIe–XIXe siècles. Clamecy, 2008.

Pérotin-Dumon, Anne. La ville aux îles, la ville dans l’île: Basse-Terre et Pointe-à-Pitre, Guadeloupe, 1650–1820. Paris, 2000.

Tur, Ali. Architecture coloniale: Guadeloupe: bâtiments gouvernementaux et communaux. Paris, (1930s).




Chopra, Preeti. “Pondicherry: A French Enclave in India.” In Forms of Dominance: On the Architecture and Urbanism of the Colonial Experience, edited by Nezar Alsayyad, 107-137. Brookfield: Avebury, 1992.

Deloche, Jean. Origins of the Urban Development of Pondicherry according to Seventeenth Century Dutch Plans. Pondicherry, 2004.

Deloche, Jean. Le papier terrier de la ville blanche de Pondicherry 1777. Pondicherry, 2002.

Gautier, François. Les français en Inde: Pondichéry, Chandernagore, Mahé, Yanaon, Karikal. New Delhi, 2008.

INTACH, Architectural Heritage of Pondicherry: Tamil and French Precincts. Pondicherry, 2010.

INTACH, Heritage Conservation in Pondicherry. Pondicherry, 2015.

Jørgensen, Helle. “Between Marginality and Universality: Present Tensions and Paradoxes in French Colonial Cultural Heritage, Civilizing Mission, and Citizenship in Puducherry, India.” Heritage & Society 10, no.1 (2017): 45-67.

This article explores the complicated attitude towards cultural conservation of the colonial heritage of Puducherry, the former capital of French India. The process of producing “heritage awareness” raises questions about colonial and postcolonial identities and conceptualizations of citizenship and heritage.

Lafont, Jean-Marie. Chitra: Cities and Monuments of Eighteenth-Century India from French Archives. New Delhi, 2001.

Malangin, Raphaël. Pondicherry that was Once French India. Pondicherry, 2015.


MARIE GALANTE (see also Guadeloupe)


Collomb, Gérard. “Architecture rurale à Marie-Galante (Guadeloupe).” Ethnologie française, nouvelle serie 9, no. 4 (1979): 311-326.



Buisseret, David, Historic Architecture of the Caribbean. London, 1980.

Cazassus-Bérard, Jeanne. 101 monuments historiques Martinique. Paris, 2014.

Fondation Clément. Le patrimoine des communes de la Martinique. Fort-de-France, 2014.

Léti, Geneviève, and Léo Élizabeth. Fort Saint-Louis. Paris, 2013.

Magnan, Aude. Regards sur le Centre-Ville de Fort de France. Fort de France, 1992.

Melhuish, Clare. “Aesthetics of social identity: re-framing and evaluating modernist architecture and planning as cultural heritage in Martinique.” Planning Perspectives 34, no.2 (2019): 265-283.

This paper explores the cultural significance of modernist architecture and urban planning in Fort-de-France, Martinique as influenced by post-war mass housing projects in France and experimental housing programmes in Morocco in the 1950s.



Askew, Marc, et al. Vientiane: Transformations of a Lao Landscape. New York, 2010.

Broman, Barry. “Treasures of Luang Prabang. Art of Asia 30, no.3 (2000): 79-92.

This paper provides an overview of the most important heritage structures in Luang Prabang, including colonial French buildings. The author also provides a historical background as context to examine these cultural motifs and features.

Engelmann, Francis, A Walk Through the Heritage of Luang Prabang. New York and Luang Prabang, 2015.

Greck, François, Luang Phabang: An Architectural Journey. Vientiane, 2004.

Heywood, Denise. Ancient Luang Prabang & Laos. Bangkok, 2014.

Luang Prabang, Laos: Old Royal City on the Mekong. Produced by Global Screen. 2001: Infobase, 2017. Documentary Film.

Vongvilay, Xayaphone, Jai-Eok Shin, Young-Hwan Kang, E-Doo Kim, and Joong Hyun Choi. “The Influence of French Colonial Rule on Lao Architecture with a Focus on Residential Buildings.” Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering 14, no.2 (2015): 279-286.

As a result of French colonialism, Lao architecture is a reflection of the integration of French architectural elements with traditional Lao practice. This paper explores the importance of compatibility between traditional domestic house forms and French colonial villas and discusses the factors that influence these transformation and changes in the built environment.



Blokker, Laura Ewen, and Heather A. Knight. “Louisiana Bousillage: The Migration and Evolution of a

French Building Technique in North America.” Construction History 28, 1 (2013): 27–48.

Bruné, Paulin. Demeures traditionnelles de Guyane. Cayenne, 1987.

Daspit, Fred. Louisiana Architecture, 1714–1820. Lafayette, 2004.

Dawdy, Shannon Lee. Building the Devil’s Empire: French Colonial New Orleans. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2008.

Edwards, Jay and Nicolas Kariouk Pecquet du Balley de Verton. A Creole Lexicon: Architecture, Landscape, and People. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2004.

An in-depth glossary designed for scholars interested in Louisiana’s Creole material culture, architecture, landscape, and history. This collection includes drawings of architecture and building techniques which could be useful in studying the architectural plans and evolution of this building style as influenced by French settlement.

Kingsley, Karen. Buildings of Louisiana. Baton Rouge, 2003.

Peterson, C.E. “Early Ste. Genevieve and Its Architecture.” Missouri Historical Review (January 1941): 207–32.

Poesch, Jessie, and Barbara SoRelle Bacot. Louisiana Buildings 1720–1940. Baton Rouge and London, 1997.

Wilson, Samuel. The Architecture of Colonial Louisiana. Lafayette, 1987.



Charbonneau, André, et al. Québec, The Fortified City. Ottawa, 1982.

Chartrand, René. French Fortresses in North America 1535–1763. Oxford, 2005.

Courville, Serge, and Robert Gagnon. Québec, ville et capital. Sainte-Foy, 2001.

Gauthier, Raymonde. Construire une église au Québec: L’architecture religieuse avant 1939. Montreal: Libre Expression, 1993.

An historical study of religious architecture in Quebec that looks at not only the style and design of church architecture but also the choice of site, costs, and the influences of culture and politics.

Gowans, Alan. Church Architecture in New France. Toronto, 1955.

Gowans, Alan. “Thomas Baillairgé and the Québecois Tradition of Church Architecture.” The Art Bulletin 34 (1952): 117-137.

Thomas Baillairgé was a prominent French-Canadian architect who represented the culture of New France as his works reflected the maturity of the Province of Quebec. This paper focuses on Baillairgé’s work in Quebec and how the French European style influenced his designs. 

Grignon, Marc. Loing du Soleil: Architectural Practice in Quebec City During the French Regime. New York: P.Lang, 1997.

Due to the remoteness of New France from direct royal administration of Versailles, political and cultural conflicts were often raised, and these conflicts often reflected the colony’s success and evolving social and cultural structures. This book explores how Versailles addressed these conflicts through the use of architecture as a symbol of authority and power.

Grignon, Marc. “La pratique architecturale de Claude Baillif.” Annales d’histoire de l’art canadien 15, 1 (1994): 6–30.

Grignon, Marc, and Juliana Maxim. “Convenance, Caractère and the Public Sphere.” Journal of Architectural Education (1995): 29–37.

Lacroix, Laurier, ed. Les arts en Nouvelle-France. Quebec City, 2012.

Laurent, Jeannine, and Jacques Saint-Pierre. Les forts et châteaux Saint-Louis, 1620–1760. Quebec City, 1982.

Lauzon, Gilles, and Madeleine Forget. L’histoire du vieux-Montréal à travers son patrimoine. Sainte-Foy, 2004.

Moogk, Peter. Building a House in New France: An Account of the Perplexities of Client and Craftsmen in Early Canada. Markham, 2002.

Morisset, Gérard. L’architecture en Nouvelle-France. Quebec City, 1949.

Noppen, Luc. “L’évolution de l’architecture religieuse en Nouvelle-France.” Sessions d’étude, Société canadienne d’histoire de l’Église catholique 43 (1976): 69–78.

Noppen, Luc. Les églises du Québec (1600–1850). Quebec City, 1977.

Noppen, Luc. Notre-Dame de Québec. Quebec City, 1974.

Noppen, Luc, and Marc Grignon. L’art de l’architecture: Three Centuries of Architectural Drawing in Quebec City. Quebec City, 1983.

Noppen, Luc. “French Architects in Early Twentieth-century French-Canadian Church Architecture: The Contribution of Breton Architect Arthur Regnault in Nova Scotia (Acadia) and Québec City.” Journal of the Society for the Study of Architecture in Canada 40, no.1 (2015): 59-73.

Porter, John R., and Jean Trudel. The Calvary at Oka. Ottawa, 1974.

Rouleau, Serge. “An Archaeological View of the French Colonial Port of Quêbec.” Post-Medieval Archaeology 43, no.1 (2009): 229-244.

An exploration of the remains of the French colonial port in Îlot Hunt, Québec sheds light on the activities of French authorities and merchants during the French colonial era. Following British takeover, much of the French elements of this port were destroyed or lost.

Richardson, A.J.H., et al., Quebec City: Architects, Artisans, and Builders. Ottawa, 1984.

Richardson, A.J. “Notarial Documentary Sources on French Colonial Buildings in North America.” Architecture Canada 46 (1969): 37

Traquair, Ramsay. The Old Architecture of Quebec: A Study of the Buildings Erected in New France from the Earliest Explorers to the Middle of the Nineteenth Century. Toronto: Macmillian Co. of Canada, 1947.

Trudel, Jean. Un chef d’œuvre de l’art ancien du Québec: la chapelle des Ursulines. Quebec City, 1972.

Trudel, Jean. The Ursuline Chapel in Quebec City. Quebec City, 2005.



Bailey, Gauvin Alexander. The Palace of Sans-Souci in Milot, Haiti (ca. 1806–13): The Untold Story of the Potsdam of the Rainforest. Berlin and Munich, 2017.

Beauvoir-Domingue, Rachel. L’ancienne cathédrale de Port-au-Prince: Perspectives d’un vestige de carrefours. Port-au-Prince, 1991.

Cauna, Jacques de. Au temps des isles à sucre: histoire d’une plantation de Saint-Domingue au XVIIIe siècle. Paris, 2003.

Cauna, Jacques de. “D’Aquitaine en Haïti et inversement.” In Dubesset and Cauna, Dynamiques caribéennes, 27–54.

Cauna, Jacques de.  “Vestiges of the Built Landscape of Pre-Revolutionary Saint-Domingue.” In David Patrick Geggus and Norman Fiering, eds., The World of the Haitian Revolution, 21–48. Bloomington and Indianapolis, 2009.

Charlery, Christophe. “Maisons de maître et habitations coloniales dans les anciens territoires français de l’Amérique tropicale.” In Situ 5 (2004): 2–49.

Corvington, Georges. Port-au-Prince au cours des ans: la ville coloniale. Port-au-Prince, 1975.

Edwards, Jay. D, “Creole Architecture: A Comparative Analysis of Upper and Lower Louisiana and Saint Domingue.” International Journal of Historical Archaeology 10, no. 3 (2006):241- 271.

This article explores what factors influenced the various architectural traditions in French colonial settlements in the New World by exploring colonial processes such as founder’s effect and preadaptation in Lower Louisiana and Saint Domingue.

Goguet, C., and F. Mangones. L’architecture de la ville historique du Cap Haïtien. Cap Haïtien, 1989.

Higginbotham, Jay. Old Mobile: Fort Louis de la Louisiane, 1702–1711. Tuscaloosa, 1977.



Bigon, Liora. “Urban Planning, Colonial Doctrines and Street Naming in French Dakar and British Lagos, c. 1850-1930.” Urban History 36, no.3 (2009): 426-448.

Focusing on French colonial Dakar and British colonial Lagos, this article compares the colonial polices of the two empires. This study examines how colonial policies of assimilation and policies of indirect rule affects urban planning and colonial architecture. 

Carey, Dwight Anthony. “Building the Creole Empire: Architecture, Urbanism, and Social Space in the French Colonial World, 1659-1810.” Doctor of Philosophy in Art History, University of California, Los Angeles, 2016.

Creole architecture is defined as buildings that combine European floor plans with design and building functions that were common in both the European and non-European world. This dissertation investigates the use of European styles, or lack thereof, in creole dwellings in the French colonies of Port Louis (Senegal), New Orleans (Louisiana), and Port Louis (Mauritius).

Hinchman, Mark. “African Rococo: House and Portrait in Eighteenth-century Senegal.” Doctor of Philosophy Dissertation, University of Chicago, Illinois, 2000.

Hinchman, Mark. “The Grid of Saint-Louis du Sénégal.” In Colonial Architecture and Urbanism in Africa, edited by Fassil Demissie, 295- 324. London: Routledge, 2016

This essay explores how the colonial administration used maps and cartography to plan and organize the colonial landscape of Saint Louis, Senegal to best assure potential settlers of the progress and safety of the colony and to control and discipline the colonized.

Hinchman, Mark. Portrait of an Island: The Architecture and Material Culture of Gorée, Sénégal, 1758–1837. Lincoln and London, 2015.

Konaté, Dior. “Penal Architecture: An Essay on Prison Designs in Colonial Senegal.” In Colonial Architecture and Urbanism in Africa, edited by Fassil Demissie, 175- 200. London: Routledge, 2016.

Sinou, Alain. Comptoirs et villes coloniales du Sénégal. Paris, 1993.

Soulillou, Jacques, ed. Rives coloniales: architectures, de Saint-Louis à Douala. Paris, 1993.



Jacq-Hergoiualch’h, Michel. L’Europe et le Siam du XVIe au XVIIIe siècle. Paris, 1993.

Oivcsavangchai, Nawit, and Shuji Funo. "Spatial Organization and Transformation Process in Ratanakosin Area, Bangkok." Architectural Institute of Japan 586, no. 1-8 (2004).

Phetsuriya, Natthakit. "Formal Language of Lanna Shop House’s Façade in Lampang Old City, Thailand." IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering 245 (2017): 14-22.

Poshyananda, Apinan. Modern Art in Thailand: Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries. Singapore: Oxford University Press, 1992.

A historical investigation of the emergence of European motifs in Thai architecture as encouraged by royal commissions and how Western influences altered the development and evolution of Siam traditional art.

Sachakul, Vira. "Bangkok Shophouses: Socio-Economic Analysis and Strategies for Improvements." Doctor of Architecture, University of Michigan, 1982.

Sthapitanonda, Nithi and Brian Mertens. Architecture of Thailand: A Guide to Tradition and Contemporary Forms. Edited by Laura Jeanne Gobal. Singapore: Editions Didier Millet, 2012.

This book covers a wide range of Thai architecture, from domestic structures to palace architecture and explores traditional elements, cultural references, and religious motifs. A section focuses on immigrant and Western colonial influences and how these structures effect Thai architectural forms today.



Brusq, Arnauld Le. Vietnam à travers l’architecture coloniale. Paris, 2009.

Doling, Tim. Exploring Ho Chi Minh City. Ho Chi Minh City, 2014.

Doling, Tim. Exploring Hue. Hanoi, 2018.

Grall, Charles. Hygiene Coloniale Appliquée: Hygiéne De L'indo-Chine. J.-B. Baillière et fils, 1908.

Herbelin, Caroline. Architectures du Vietnam colonial. Paris, 2016.

Jennings, Eric T. “From Indochine to Indochic: The Lang Bian/Dalat Palace Hotel and French Colonial Leisure, Power, and Culture.” Modern Asian Studies 37, no.1 (2003): 159-194.

Kien, To. "“Tube House” and “Neo Tube House” in Hanoi: A Comparative Study on Identity and Typology." Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering 7, no. 2 (2018): 255-62.

Logan, William S. Hanoi: Biography of a City. Sydney, 2000.

Malherbe, Virginie. Hanoï: rêves d’Occident en Extrême-Orient. Paris, n.d.

Phuong, Dinh Quoc, and Derham Groves. "Sense of Place in Hanoi’s Shop-House: The Influences of Local Belief on Interior Architecture." Journal of Interior Design 36, no. 1 (2010): 1-20.

This article explores the architectural influence of the spiritual practice of phong thuy within the Vietnamese culture and how it dictated the function, layout, and design of various colonial shophouses.

Labbé, Danielle, Caroline Herbelin, and Quang-Vinh Dao. "Domesticating the Suburbs: Architectural Production and Exchanges in Hanoi During the Late French Colonial Era." In Harbin to Hanoi: The Colonial Built Environment in Asia, 1840-1940, edited by Laura Victoir and Victor Zatsepine, 251-71. Hong Kong Hong Kong University Press, 2013.

This chapter explores the struggle and conflicts experienced by these western trained Vietnamese architects as they attempt to establish a Vietnamese architectural identity within the French colony.

Le Huu Phuoc. Vietnamese Architecture. Hanoi, 2016.

Logan, William S. "Hanoi: Building a Capital for French Indochina ". In Hanoi: Biography of the City 67-111. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2000.

Nguyen, Ba Dang. “Preservation of the French Colonial Quarter in Hanoi, Vietnam.” Ambio 25, no.2 (1996): 115-117.

This article focuses on the French Quarters in the city of Hanoi and its role and value within the city’s historical culture as well as the architectural changes due to tourism.

Phúc Tiên et al., Saigon Then & Now. Ho Chi Minh City, 2016.

Traits d’architecture,Hanoi à l’heure française. Hanoi, 2009.

Victoir, Laura. "Hygienic Colonial Residences in Hanoi." In Harbin to Hanoi: The Colonial Built Environment in Asia, 1840-1940 edited by Laura Victoir and Victor Zatsepine, 231-50. Hong Kong Hong Kong University press, 2013.

The tropical climate of Southeast Asia was not easily accepted or acclimatized by European settlers. This chapter explores the various tropical hygiene manuals that circulated French in society and served as instructions as well as warnings of how to dress, behave, and even decorate the domestic sphere to best survive the heat and humidity of the environment.

Victoir, Laura, and Victor Zatsepine. Harbin to Hanoi: The Colonial Built Environment in Asia, 1840 to 1940. Hong Kong, 2013.

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