Altar: a table or platform often found in a church and used as a centre of worship at Christian services.
Baroque: An artistic and architectural style that emerged in the late sixteenth century, characterized by dramatic and dynamic forms, as well as sumptuous ornament. This style was pervasive in many colonial centres, sometimes in use late into the eighteenth century, and took on a number of variations all over the world.
Calvary: A sculpture or picture representing the scene of the Crucifixion of Jesus.
Convent: A group of nuns that live together under Christian vows; it also refers to the building in which they live, which is sometimes attached to a church.
Fort: A strong and fortified building that would be occupied by troops, often surrounded by mechanisms to keep others away, such as a ditch.
Jesuit: A man belonging to the Society of Jesus, which is a Roman Catholic religious order founded by Ignatius Loyola in 1540. The Jesuits focused much of their efforts on mission work and education.
Mission: A building or group of buildings used by a Christian mission, which is an organized effort to spread the Christian religion. In many colonial situations, those serving Christian missions often sought to convert local populations to Christianity.
Neoclassical: Referring to a revival of the classical arts and culture of antiquity, particularly of Rome and Greece. The Neoclassical movement began in the 18th century, and affected music, art, architecture, and literature. Neoclassical structures were valued for their simple geometric forms, which contrasted the more ornate styles of the Baroque and Rococo.
Neogothic: Referring to a 19th century revival of medieval Gothic forms found in art and architecture, such as pointed arches and high-vaulted ceilings.
Palladian: Referring to the classically-inspired style of architecture developed by Italian architect, Andrea Palladio (1508-1580). Palladio’s architecture was inspired by Classical Roman architecture, with a particular focus on rules of proportion and symmetry. In addition, Palladian architecture draws from the relative ornamental simplicity of a building’s exterior, as found in much classical architecture.
Pulpit: An elevated and enclosed platform found inside of a church from which the sermon is delivered. Pulpits can range from being very plain in their design with minimal decoration to featuring complicated designs and a saturation of decoration.
Ramparts: A defensive earthen wall raised as a fortification to protect a structure.
Rococo: A style that emerged in 18th century France and could be found in painting, architecture, decoration, and rules of decorum. The elegant and refined style of Rococo ornament was partly a response to the drama and grandeur of the Baroque style that immediately preceded it. Pastel colours, gentle gilding, and organic and scrolling motifs such as rocaille, were characteristic of the style. In some colonies, such as Brazil, the Rococo gained immense popularity and lasted longer here than in France, the country of its origin.
Seminary: A school in which one trains to become a Priest, Minister, or Rabbi. School curriculum often emphasizes theological study.
Sentry box: A small structure to provide shelter to a sentry. A sentry is a soldier who guards an entrance or gate, and controls access to the structure.
Steeple: A tall, pointed ornament erected on the roof or tower of a church.
Tabernacle: A receptacle – or decorative box – in which the Eucharist is stored when not being used in mass. A tabernacle can also function as a place for a worshipper to focus on when in prayer.
UNESCO: This is an acronym for the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. UNESCO was created in 1945 after the Second World War in an effort to bring the world nations together to work toward achieving peace. The organization focuses on education and intercultural understanding. UNESCO’s World Heritage List features structures and places of built and natural heritage all over the world that have been inducted to the list under a number of criteria that define their importance to humanity.